Caterpillar Handbook of Ripping

Seismic refraction has historically been the geophysical method utilized to indirectly predetermine the degree of rippability. This has been the favored method based on extensive field tests conducted by the Caterpillar Company, relating seismic velocity to rippability. The seismic velocity as measured in seismic refraction surveys provides a qualitative measure of the rock strength and the presence of major fractures.